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Why do space shuttles carry liquid hydrogen instead of hydrogen gas?

Why do space shuttles carry liquid hydrogen instead of hydrogen gas?

Liquid hydrogen fuel has many benefits, including its low molecular weight and high energy output when burned together with liquid oxygen. Hydrogen also provides low-density liquid fuel for navigation thrusters in orbit. The main engine of the space shuttle used liquid hydrogen fuel.

What rockets use liquid fuel?

Liquid-propellant rocket engines

rocket fuel
Saturn first stage RP-1 (kerosene)
second stage liquid hydrogen
third stage liquid hydrogen
Apollo lunar module hydrazine-UDMH* (50%–50%)

What are the advantages of liquid fuel?

Advantages of liquid fuels : They possess higher calorific value per unit mass than solid fuels. They burn without forming dust, ash, clinkers etc. Their firing is easier and also fire can be extinguished easily by stopping the liquid fuel supply. They are easy to transport through pipes.

Does NASA use liquid hydrogen?

For decades, NASA has relied upon hydrogen gas as rocket fuel to deliver crew and cargo to space. For example, the rocket engines of each shuttle flight burn about 500,000 gallons of cold liquid hydrogen with another 239,000 gallons depleted by storage boil off and transfer operations.

Why liquid fuel is considered better than solid fuel?

Liquid fuels are cheaper than solid fuels. They are easy to extract and transport over long distances as compared to solid fuels. Residues left by liquid fuels are mostly gaseous and does not leave solid pollutants.

Why is liquid hydrogen used for rocket fuel?

To keep it from evaporating or boiling off, rockets fuelled with liquid hydrogen must be carefully insulated from all sources of heat, such as rocket engine exhaust and air friction during flight through the atmosphere. Once the vehicle reaches space, it must be protected from the radiant heat of the Sun.

How does a rocket engine work in space?

As opposed to an airplane engine, which operates within the atmosphere and thus can take in air to combine with fuel for its combustion reaction, a rocket needs to be able to operate in the emptiness of space, where there’s no oxygen. Accordingly, rockets have to carry not just fuel, but also their own oxygen supply.

What kind of fuel does a SpaceX rocket use?

As a result, after each rocket launch, SpaceX needs to clean its rocket engine thoroughly. This process is costly and prevents SpaceX from reusing their rocket in rapid succession. Though Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy’s Merlin engine uses liquid Kerosene, the Starship’s Raptor engine uses liquid Methane (CH4) as fuel.

Why are the rocket engines called Liquid Engines?

Steam clouds, the product of the SLS main engines’ hydrogen-oxygen reaction, pour from an RS-25 engine during testing at NASA’s Stennis Space Center. The RS-25 main engines are called “liquid engines” because the fuel is liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid oxygen (LOX) serves as the oxidizer.